KIRA ZUWA GA TAFARKIN MAGABATA NA KWARAI (Manhajus Salafis Salih) *** 31(Sheikh Aliyu Said Gamawa)


BANBANCIN DA KE TSAKANIN
SHUGABANNIN MAZHABOBI WAJEN
HANYOYIN DA SUKE DOGARA DA
SU (4)
3. MAZHABAR IMAMUS-SHAFI’I
Qa’idoji da ginshiqan mazhabar
Imamus-Shafi’i (R.A.) su ne abin
da ya tattara cikin littafinsa na
“Usulul Fiqhi” mai suna (Ar-risala)
wanda ake ganin shi ne farkon
littafin Usulul Fiqhi mai gamewa da
aka wallafa a Musulinci.
Al- Imamus-Shafi’i (R.A.) ya ce:
Tushen Shari’ar Musulunci shi ne
Qur’ani da Sunnah, idan ba a sami
nassi a cikinsu ba, sai a yi qiyasi a
kansu. Idan kuma salsalar Hadisin
da aka ruwaito daga Manzon Allah
(S.A.W.) ta sadu da shi, kuma ta
inganta, to wannan shi ne matuqa.
Ijma’i kuma ya fi gauron Hadisi.
Haka kuma ana daukar Hadisi ne a
kan zahirin lafazinsa, idan kuma
yaqunshi ma’anoni fiye da daya, to
ma’anar da ta fi kusa da zahirin ita
ta fi cancanta a fahimce shi da ita.
Idan kuma Hadisai suka yi kafada
da kafada da juna, to Hadisi mai
salsalar da ta fi inganci shi ne
mafificinsu, Hadisi Munqadi’i
kuwa, ba a bakin komai ya ke ba,
idan ba daga Ibnul Musayyib ya ke
ba. Hadisi “Munqadi’i” shi ne
wanda maruwaici daya ya saraya
daga salsalarsa, amma da
sharadin kada mai sarayar ya zama
Sahabi ne shi. Kuma ba a qiyasce
Shari’a kan wani tushen da ba
nata ba, kuma ba a cewa da
tushen Shari’a ta qaqa ko saboda
me? Sai dai ana iya cewa don me
ga reshen Shari’a kawai. Idan
kuma qiyasin reshen ya inganta a
kan asali, ya zama ingantacce ke
nan, kuma za a iya kafa hujja da
shi. Saboda haka Imamu Shafi’i
yana bayanin cewa Qur’ani da
Sunnah duk matsayinsu daya ne,
dangane da shar’antarwa. Babu
wani sharadi da ake shardanta wa
Hadisi banda inganci, da saduwa
da tushensa, domin shi ma asali
ne na Shari’a, shi kuwa asali ba a
ce masa saboda me, ko ta qaqa?
Haka kuma ba a shardanta wa
Hadisi ya zama mashahuri idan ya
zo cikin abin da yake da wahala a
kauce masa (kamar yadda Imamu
Abu Hanifa ya sharxanta), amma
bai shardanta rashin savawar
Hadisi da aikin mutanen Madina
ba, (kamar yadda Imamu Malik ya
shardanta), sai dai bai yarda da
wani Hadisi daga Hadisan
“Misalai” ba, in banda na Sa’idu
Ibnul Musayyib, domin nasa suna
da hanyoyin da suka dangana su
ga tushe a wajensa. A nan Imamu
Shafi’i ya saba da Maliku da
Sauriy da sauran tsarakunsa (daga
malaman Hadisi) wadanda suke
kafa hujja da irin wadannan
Hadisai. Haka kuma bai amince da
kafa hujja da “Istihsani” ba, a
wanda a nan ma ya saba da
Malikawa da da Hanafawa gaba
dayansu. Har ma ya rubuta
littafinsa game da rashin amincewa
da Istihsani mai suna “Ibdalul
istihsan,” sannan ya fadi maganar
nan tasa mashahuriya inda ya ce,
“Wanda duk ya aiwatar da
istihsani, to ya shar’anta hukunci.
Kamar yadda ya qi karbar
Masalihul-mursala, ya qi amincewa
da kafa hujja da ita. Haka kuma ya
qi amincewa da kafa hujja da
qiyasin da bai kafu a kan wani
ingantaccen dalili mabayyani ba.
Haka kuma ya qi amincewa da kafa
hujja da aikin mutanen Madina,
kamar yadda ya kasance yana
ganin kuskuren Hanafawa game da
barin su ga aiki da Hadisai masu
yawa saboda rashin cika sharudan
da suka gindaya a kansu wajen
aikin Hadisan, kamar shuhura, da
makamancinta. Haka kuma bai
taqaita ba, (kamar yadda Malik ya
taqaita) wajen riqo da Hadisan
mutanen Hijaz su kadai.
Wadannan su ne ginshiqan
Mazhabar Imamu Shafi’i mafiya
muhimmanci kuma mafiya fice a
jimlance wadanda ana iya ganin
sabani tsakaninsu da ginshiqan
mazhabar Hanafawa da Malikawa a
fili.

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