The four aspects of belief in Al-Qadr (Divine Decree)


Al-Qadr is an Arabic word
meaning Allah’s
predestination of
measurements and
sustenance of everything and
everyone, according to His
Knowledge and Wisdom. It
comprises the following four
aspects:Source:Islamweb

1. Knowledge – The belief that
Allah’s knowledge
encompasses everything,
every matter, major or minor,
and the time frame of
everything that happens in
this universe. Allah’s
Knowledge encompasses all of
His actions and actions taken
by His slaves.

2. Pre-Recording – The belief
that Allah recorded everything
in a Tablet that He kept with
Himself, called ‘Al-Lawh Al-
Mahfooth’ (The Preserved
Tablet). Allah Says (what
means): “Do you not know
that Allah knows what is in
the heaven and earth? Indeed
that is in a Record [i.e., Al-
Lawh Al-Mahfooth]. Indeed
that, for Allah, is
easy.” [Quran 22:70] Abdullaah
bin ‘Amr bin Al-‘Aas said that
he heard the Messenger of
Allah (may Allah exalt his
mention) say: “Allah recorded
the measurement of all
matters pertaining to creation
fifty thousand years before
He created the heavens and
earth.” [Muslim].

3. The Will of Allah – The belief
that nothing, whether related
to Allah’s actions or actions
taken by His slaves, can occur
without His permission. Allah
Says (what means): “And your
Lord creates what He wills and
chooses… ” [Quran 28:68] And
(what means): “…And Allah
does what He wills.” [Quran
14:27] And (what means) “It is
He who forms you in the
wombs however He
wills…” [Quran 3:6] As for
actions taken by His creation,
Allah Says (what means): “…
And if Allah had willed, He
could have given them power
over you, and they would
have fought you.” [Quran 4:90]
And (what means): “…And if
Allah had willed, they would
not have done so. So leave
them and that which they
invent.” [Quran 6:137].

4. Creation – The belief that
Allah created all creation, all
what they possess of
attributes, and all their
actions. Allah Says (what
means): “Allah is the Creator
of all things, and He is, over
all things, Disposer of
affairs.” [Quran 39:62] And
(what means): “…He has
created each thing and
determined it with [precise]
determination.” [Quran: 25:2]
Also, Ibraaheem said to his
people (what means): “While
Allah created you and that
which you do?” [Quran 37:96]
Believing in Al-Qadr, as
described above, does not
mean that people have no
power over the actions they
choose to take. The Sharee’ah
(Islamic Law) as well as
reality, confirm man has a will
of his own:
As for the Sharee’ah, Allah
Says about one’s own will
(what means): “…So he who
wills may take to his Lord a
[way of] return [by obeying
his commandments].” [Quran
78:39] And (what means): “So
come to your place of
cultivation however you wish
…” [Quran 2:223] As for one’s
own power over his actions,
Allah Says (what means): “So
fear Allah as much as you are
able and listen and
obey…” [Quran 64:16] And
(what means): “Allah does not
charge a soul except [with
that within] its capacity. It will
have [the consequence of]
what [good] it has gained, and
it will bear [the consequence
of] what [evil] it has
earned…” [Quran 2:286]
As for reality, every human
knows that he has a power
and a will of his own. He uses
his power and will to indulge
in or avoid actions of his
choice. People distinguish
between what they do by
their own power and between
what they have no power
over, like shivering due to
illness or the extreme cold.
However, the power and will
of mankind is under the
control of Allah’s Will and
Power; Allah Says (what
means): “For whoever wills
among you to take a right
course. And you do not will
except that Allah wills – Lord
of the worlds.” [Quran
81:28-29]. The universe is
Allah’s property and nothing
happens in His Kingdom
without His Knowledge and
Permission.
Belief in Al-Qadr, as explained
above, does not provide an
excuse for mankind to sin or
abandon what they are
obligated to do. This excuse
can be refuted by the
following seven arguments:

1.Allah Says (what means):
“Those who associated with
Allah will say: ‘If Allah had
willed, we would not have
associated [anything] and
neither would our fathers, nor
would we have prohibited
anything.’ Likewise did those
before deny until they tasted
Our punishment. Say: ‘Do you
have any knowledge that you
can produce for us?’ You
follow not except assumption,
and you are not but
falsifying.” [Quran 6:148] The
disbelievers did not have a
valid excuse when they said
that what they did was
according to Al-Qadr. If this
excuse was valid, then why
will Allah punish them for
their sins?.

2.Allah Says (what means):
“[We sent] messengers as
bringers of good tidings and
warners so that mankind will
have no argument against
Allah after the messengers.
And ever is Allah Exalted in
Might and Wise.” [Quran
4:165] Sending the Messengers
also took place according to
Al-Qadr. This is why the
disbelievers cannot use Al-­
Qadr as an excuse for not
believing, because Al-Qadr
provided them with the
means to escape Allah’s
punishment by following His
Messengers, may Allah exalt
their mention.

3.Ali Ibn Abu Taalib, may
Allah be pleased with him,
narrated that the Prophet
said: “The final destination, in
Hell or Paradise, is already
determined for each one of
you.” A man said: “Should we
depend on this fact, O
Messenger of
Allah?” (Meaning, to abandon
doing good deeds) He said:
“No! Perform (good) deeds,
because everyone will be
helped (to go on the path that
he chooses and reach his
destiny).” Then he read the
verse (which means): “As for
he who gives [in charity] and
fears Allah.” [Quran 92:5]”

4. Allah conveyed His
commandments to His slaves
and did not require them to
do what is beyond their
capacity; He says: “So fear
Allah as much as you are
able…” [Quran 64:16] And:
“Allah does not charge a soul
except [with that within] its
capacity…” [Quran: 2:286] If
the slave is forced to do
whatever deeds he performs,
then Allah would have
required from him what is
beyond his capacity, and this
is a false belief. For this
reason, Allah forgives sins
that take place because of
ignorance or forgetfulness.

5 Al-Qadr is a matter of
Allah’s Knowledge. No one can
uncover his own Qadr except
after it occurs. One’s intention
to perform a deed precedes
the action itself. He does not
know what Al-Qadr holds for
him. Therefore, Al-Qadr is not
a valid excuse for sinning and
abandoning the
commandments of Allah.

6 One always seeks what is
convenient for him. No one of
sane mind would abandon
what brings material benefit
to him, saying that Al-Qadr
forced him to take this course
of action. Therefore, why
would one use Al-Qadr as an
excuse for abandoning what
brings benefit to him in
matters of religion and not do
the same for matters of life?

7 If one of those who
abandon the commandments
of Allah and indulge in sinning
comes under attack of his
honour or possessions, would
he accept the excuse of the
attacker, if he says that he
attacked him because it was
his Qadr to attack him, and
therefore he is not to be
blamed? Indeed no!
Therefore, why does this
person refuse Al-Qadr as an
excuse for whoever attacked
him, and at the same time use
Al-Qadr as his excuse for
abandoning Allah’s rights on
him?
It was reported that a man
who was caught stealing was
brought to ‘Umar Ibn Al-
Khattaab who ordered that
this man’s hand be cut off.
The man said: “Wait, O leader
of the believers! I only stole
because this was in the Qadr
of Allah.” ‘Umar replied “And
we are amputating your hand
because it is in the Qadr of
Allah.”

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